Narration - Lesson and Interactive Exercises

Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech

The art of reporting the words of a speaker is called Narration.

There are two main ways of reporting the words of a speaker.

1. Direct Speech

2. Indirect Speech


Direct Speech

In this form the actual words of the speaker are put in quotes “ ” .

  1. Rama said,” I am very busy now.”
  2. In the above example the Speaker i.e
  3. Rama is known as Reporter,
  4. said is known as Reporting verb and
  5. “I am very busy now.” is known as Reported Speech.

Indirect Speech

In this form the actual words of the speaker are transformed and said/written in simple manner.


  • Rama said that he was very busy then.


How to convert a Direct Speech to Indirect Speech.

There are five basic things that have to be changed while converting a Direct speech to an Indirect speech.

  1. To change the reporting verb according to the reported speech.
  2. To remove the inverted comma’s from the direct speech and replace them with an appropriate conjunction.
  3. To change the pronoun of reported speech accordingly.
  4. Change the adverbs of the Direct Speech.

Active - Rajiv said to me,” I shall go to the picture today”
Passive - Rajiv told me that he would go to the picture that day.

In the above example

Reporting verb said to is changed into told.
Inverted Commas
are replaced by the conjunction that
Reported speech’s pronoun I is changed into He.
Reported speech’s verb shall go is changed into would go.
As another changes today is changed with the word that day.


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